This is a beautiful story and probably the best way to begin, is to start in the middle and proceed in both directions. And
as more information is gathered it should be practical to distribute new information in the overall story. Let’s start with a
Guevara pioneer, one who had a long and very interesting life.
A fledgling country under the leadership of Thomas Jefferson, concerned with foreign powers, managed to double its
territory size and status as a nation with the Louisiana Purchase. The sale from France included a portion of what
eventually would be included in the state New Mexico. And in that year was born a lad in a foreign country who would
travel to that state in the new land and spend most of his life as a quality citizen and soldier.
Y g n a c i o
The story begins with José Antonio Pelagio Ygnacio de San Evaristo, the legitimate child of José Maria Niño Ladrón
de Guevara and Guadalupe de la Riva. And Niño Ladrón would also have been added to the child’s name. A niño
Español, he was born in the pueblo of la Villa de los Cinco Señores, State of Durango, México, on the 23rd of March
1803, and was baptized on the 26th of the same month in the parish of Cinco Señores del Rio de Nazas by Father
Evaristo Florentino. His godfather was Don José Ygnacio Ruiz Losano, a priest at the same parish.
The Villa de Cinco Senores, or Nazas as it is now known, is situated near the Nazas River near the east and more to the
north of the very irregular shaped state of Durango. The Santa Ana Church’s records began in 1726.
Before we continue, we should discuss the uncovering of Ygnacio’s baptism. It wasn’t easy.
Crossing the Bridge
Sometimes, or most times, pursuing an individual from north of the Rio Grande to his or her native land of birth can be
very difficult and if one document had not surfaced, it’s very likely that we wouldn't be telling you this story.
Early on in the search when it was discovered that Ygnacio was the patriarch, and from México, I knew that I would
eventually have to confront the task of trying to locate his birthplace in order to regress back in time, but at the time his
descendants were the primary concern. As time passed, Ygnacio became more of a challenge because the bridge was
looming closer, and would have to be crossed in order to continue the search. Once, on a hunch and with no information I
tried to locate him, with no luck. I had a genealogist friend and her brother trying their skills, he on the Internet, trying to
help me. Thank you Lila and Gene(1). I couldn’t get any solid advice from anyone on how to solve the problem. Then I
got lucky, very lucky.
1—Lila’s genealogical know-how has been a big help, especially at the beginning of this adventure. She and brother Gene are very active
researching their family roots, and they have about 5,000 names in their database. What an accomplishment. The most prolific genealogist
may be Robert Behra. His dedication is something to behold when he’s at the LDS Library in Salt Lake City. “Google” him and see how
many are in his database.
It appears that Ygnacio was the second child. An older brother, José Maria, was born in February 1802 in Nazas.
When Ygnacio’s older brother was located, Ygnacio just had to appear, and he did. I thought that I had found a gold
mine and that I was going to become wealthy. I was very wrong. I checked until early 1808 looking for more children
without any luck. I was looking for the name Guevara in every baptism that I read. I always check the names of
godparents as well as the surname of the child’s parents. Then I went back to 1760 and read until 1802 hoping to
find a parent of Ygnacio, or any Guevara. I had another bridge to cross. I was in a quandary. I was in the middle of
México and I was lost. I had spent quite a lot of time in the Nazas area and was well rewarded, but there had to be
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When problems arise and I’m floundering, I head to Salt Lake, that is if I’m not already there. There is professional help,
and my staff professional has saved me several times. So I called upon her once again. Since I knew the names of
Ygnacio’s parents and a time frame of when the family should have grown, I told her of my problem. She dialed in on the
computer and eventually helped me cross another bridge, and she located a very productive gold mine. I had never
worked the LDS database for information and she introduced me to the technology. It’s called IGI, short for International
Genealogical Index. See the José Maria-Guadalupe story for results of the help from the staff at the LDS library. Thank
you Ruth (2).
2--The library at Salt Lake City has many volunteers and some professionals to help the 1900 people that utilize the facility per day. The
help and guidance that they offer play a huge roll to make the library a first class facility.
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Sometime before August 1807 the José Maria Guevara family, with at least Ygnacio in tow, moved to San Pedro del
Gallo, about 30 miles from Nazas. Ygnacio probably lived in the pueblo until at least late 1818 when the last birth of
a brother was recorded in late 1818. Ygnacio would have been approaching 16 years of age, and of course, we are
assuming that he lived with his parents. Remember, they were upper class, so he probably did so.
Revolt of 1837
Revolt of 1837
Ygnacio may have been associating with fast company at one time. There was a rebellion in the summer of 1837
due to displeasure with, and actions of the governor who was appointed by Mexico president Santa Anna. In
August the unpopular governor was killed, along with about 20 of his officials, by some insurgents in Santa Fe. The
group included Santiago Abreu, either the present or former mayor of Santa Fe, and a former interim governor.
Shortly afterwards Santiago’s brothers Ramon, who was the governor’s prefect, and Marcelino were slain. Marcelino
was Ygnacio’s partner in the mine venture at El Tuerto and his signatures appears along with Ygnacio’s when the
mine was registered in late 1833 and transferred in early 1834. Santiago’s signature also appears on the document
when the mine was transferred because he oversaw the sale as mayor of Santa Fe. He mentioned that he knew
Ygnacio. The parents of the Abreu brothers, Santiago and Soledad de la O, were spared the tragic events since
they had been deceased by 1829. Marcelino married in 1829 and he and his wife, Brigida, were having a family in
the Tome area. It’s possible that he and Ygnacio became acquainted in the time period of the early 1830s and in the
Tome area. A son, born almost two years later than Ygnacio’s son, Placido, was given the same name.
When the diligencia of Ygnacio and Ana Maria was discovered, and that they were living in Real de San Francisco del
Tuerto, I tried to locate the area, with no success. Then later I ran across the document stating that Ygnacio, and two
partners, had registered a mine on Sierra de Oro in the Ortiz Mountains.
Saturday, September 20
I had breakfast at Mannies. About a year ago when I was in S.L.C., I found out that Margaret’s great great grandfather, Ygnacio Guevara,
lived in a place called El Camino Real San Francisco del Tuerto. The year was 1844. I also found out that he, along with two partners, staked a
claim for a mine on Sierra de Oro late in 1833. They sold the mine a few months later. I assumed that the address was in the Santa Fe area. One
reason, is that there is a San Francisco street in town. And I assumed that the section of el Tuerto (one-eyed) was near the city of Santa Fe. And
I assumed that if I was right it would lead me to more information, such as the baptism of Ygnacio’s son, Placido, and perhaps his marriage to
Maria Sanchez, and perhaps her baptism. The 1850 census for Santa Fe County has minor information, and the upper part of the sheet is dark
and unreadable. The 1860 census did indeed mention an area of El Camino Real San Francisco del Tuerto. I had been thinking about the address
for a good length of time, and just where the address might be. But, my assuming was wrong. The day before yesterday when I was at the
archives in Santa Fe, I posed my question to a fellow. Al told me that the address was down the line about 40 miles, toward Albuquerque. I was
very surprised, in fact, at first I didn’t believe him. He said the place is now known as Golden. So I decided to drive to Golden, about 30 miles
east and north of Albuquerque on Hwy. 14 which more or less parallels I-25. After I left I-40 and a couple of small towns, the road is curvy
with no traffic for about 12 miles. Now, there’s not much to Golden, a few homes and a couple of gift shops. I don’t see why it is on the map.
There are some remnants of adobe houses that could date back close to 100 years. I was running out of town and I stopped at the last
structure—a small gift shop—hoping to get some information. The lady was very nice and seemed knowledgeable about the area. When I was in
Santa Fe, I found out where Sierra de Oro was located, and it was in the Ortiz Mountains. And on a large map I located the Ortiz Mountains
near Golden. So, I asked the lady if the small range of mountains that I was pointing to, and a short distance away, was the Ortiz Mountains?
She said “yes.” She also said that this section of highway years ago was El Camino Real de San Francisco. And she said that the settlement El
Tuerto was just a short distance away from her shop in the nearby arroyo, but that there was nothing left of the settlement. So, here I am
walking on ground that Ygnacio walked 170 years ago. It’s amazing! She also said that at one time there was a stream running in the arroyo. I
took some pictures and headed for Albuquerque. Then I stopped at another gift shop for a soft drink and got into conversation with another
lady about the area. She verified what the first lady told me, and said that the church records were at Pena Blanca. El Tuerto, what was it like to
have lived there 170 years ago?
“GOLDEN (Santa Fe; settlement in SW part of county, on NM 14, 12 mi NE of San Antonito; PO 1880-1928, mail to Madrid) In 1829 placer
gold was discovered on Tuerto Creek on the SW side of the Ortiz Mountains, and soon two small mining camps developed—Tuerto (see New
Placers), on the creek, and Real de San Francisco, a short distance to the S. where Golden is now. The settlements were small, a few
hundred Hispanics and Indians living in adobe dwellings and using burros to carry ore. But around 1880 several large miming companies
moved in, and Real de San Francisco changed its name to Golden, reflecting high expectations of mineral wealth. The hopes were
disappointed, however, and after 1884 Golden’s population dwindled. Mining now is all but gone from the area. Tuerto has vanished, but
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ORTIZ MOUNTAINS (Santa Fe; between Madrid and Golden, E of NM 14). Early records and maps refer to this small mountain cluster as
the Sierre de San Lazaro, “Mountains of St. Lazarus,” most likely by association with the nearby 17th-century Tano mission named San
Lazaro. Legend says that before 1680 the Spanish used Indian slaves to work gold mines here, sealed and hidden by the Indians after the
Pueblo Revolt. The present name possibly recalls Nicolas Ortiz, a native of Mexico City who with his wife, Dona Mariana Coronado, in 1693
arrived in N.M. But the Ortiz most directly connected with the mountains’ history was a sheepherder named Jose Francisco Ortiz who in
1828 discovered gold in these mountains; in 1833 he and Ygnacio Cano petitioned for and were given the Ortiz Mine Grant. Several gold-
mining camps sprang up, including Dolores (see entry), or Old Placers, and sporadic mining continues in the Ortiz Mountains to this day.
The highest summit is the appropriately named Placer Mountain, 8,897 ft., also known as Ortiz Peak. Another summit is named Sierra de
Oro. “mountain of gold.”
In the 1850 U.S. census for New México, Ygnacio and Ana Maria were living in Santa Fe County. Also In the
household were Nasario, age 20; Placido, age 15; Juliana Padilla, age 30; and Stanislada, age 4. Ygnacio gave his
age as 50, said that he could read and write, he was a farmer, placed his value at $150, and that he was born in the
Republic of México. All other family members were born in New Mexico. Nasario was the son of Ana Maria, and
Nazario, as his name was spelled on his baptism, was handicapped. The 1850 census didn’t declare relationships in
the households, but Placido was Ygnacio’s son, as later evidence supported, and he worked as a laborer. Juliana
was Stanislada’s mother and she and Ana Maria were related by marriage. Ana Maria was the daughter of José
Torres and Lorenza Salas. Juliana’s husband and father of Stanislada, José Padilla, was the son of Manuel Padilla
and Lorenza Salas.
It appears that Ygnacio may have lived in the El Tuerto area for quite a few years. He obviously was there in late 1833 to
oversee his investment, that was his address in 1844, and although the 1850 census didn’t designate the area, gold digging
was an occupation, and that was the only area in the Santa Fe County where the census listed that gold mining was active.
The diligencia said that he had known Ana Maria Torres for twelve years. She was the widow of Santiago Toledo. Had
they lived in El Tuerto?
It may have been a pleasant move for the Guevara family to relocate from the western foothills of the Ortiz Mountains to
the eastern foothills of the Manzano Mountains. The distance was about 70 miles. Both places are located on the off-
beaten path today as must have been 160-170 years ago. In fact, the Mexico census in 1845 obviously missed the areas,
although both areas were captured in the 1850 U.S. census. If Ygnacio did indeed live in El Tuerto for a period of time,
and he applied his livelihood as a farmer, such as he stated in the 1850 census, he wasn’t only a pioneer, but a mighty
tough pioneer. The land appears rocky, unproductive and very challenging for a farmer. The elevation is 6700 feet, and
some of the winters must have produced a fair amount of snow.
The Guevaras’ social life must have improved. They left the area of El Tuerto with approximately 300 residents in 1850,
that dwindled to about 80 in 1860, to an area of approximately 850 persons. Manzano is a pretty area and for a farmer
or rancher it probably was a nice location. In 1829 there were about seventy family heads or individuals applying for
deeds to the property that they were residing on in Manzano. One of the applicants was Mariano Torres, Kathryn’s great-
great grandfather. Besides the beauty of the Manzano area, there is some historic beauty. Did the Guevaras hitch up a
wagon and travel about 7 miles to the Quarai ruins on a Sunday outing? Bet they did so. But when the family left El Tuerto
did they move to Manzano? That will be discussed in the Placido story.
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On October 19, 1861, at the age of 58 years, Ygnacio was recruited in Manzano to enlist in the Union Army as
a New Mexico Volunteer. He was assigned to, “Co. H., 1 Regiment New Mexico Calvary.” Ygnacio quickly
rose to the rank of Sergeant. His duty was as, “farrier (blacksmith) for his company.” Military records
described him as, “5’ 6”, fair skinned, with gray eyes and gray hair." Company Muster rolls remark that he
fought in the battle of Valverde.” At the age of 61 Ygnacio was honorably discharged from serving in the U.S.
Calvary during the Civil War. The Detachment Muster-out Roll reads as follows: “Discharged. Expiration of
term of service at Los Piños, NM. Oct. 20/64. Bounty due $100.00.” Company Muster Roll also showed that
he remained on Inactive Ready Reserve until “September 29, 1866.”
Isn't that great information? You descendants can be very proud of your ancestor. The story about Ygnacio is finished,
yet it may never be finished. There is information on his son, grandchildren, parents, grandparents, and great
grandparents in the early 1700s. There is story about Ygnacio's and Placido's military service during the Civil War.
Click on Union Army in the above paragraph.
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Like El Tuerto, the Guevaras probably were in Manzano at a time when the population was beginning to decline. From
1860 to 1870 the population declined somewhat---a little more than 10 per cent---and from 1860 to 1880 the population
declined a little less than 50 per cent to about 450 residents. The 2000 census quoted 54 inhabitants residing there. In
early 1865 Ygnacio was still using the historic family name of Niño Ladrón de Guevara as evidenced by the baptismal
certificate of his granddaughter, Mercedes. He and his wife were designated as her godparents. Mercedes was born in
Manzano. She survived, matured during historic times in Lincoln County, married, had a family and lived a long life.
Ygnacio and wife, Ana Maria, next appear in October 1869 as godparents to Theophilus and Estanislada Lalone’s
child born in Missouri Plaza, Lincoln County. Estanislada was Ana Maria’s niece. This is the last information that we
have about Ana Maria. She married Santiago Toledo in 1824, had a child, Nazario, two years later and married
Ygnacio in 1844. And unless a baptism is found its logical to assume that she was born around 1808.
Ygnacio didn’t appear in the 1870 census, but on the 15th of July 1873 Sheriff Lewis Gylam served summons to, “Jesus
Bildorae and Ygnacio N. L. de Guevarra to appear at the Lincoln County courthouse and testify before a grand jury.”
Judge Warren Bristol ordered the summons. The summons indicated that Ygnacio was a resident of Lincoln County, but
he likely arrived in the late 1860s along with his son, Placido, and family, and wife Ana Maria’s niece, Estanislada, and
her family, the Lalones. This is the last documentation rewarding Ygnacio with his family name of "Niño Ladron." Jesus
Bildorae was Margaret's and Kathryn's great grandfather.
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The book entitled Lincoln County War by Maurice Fulton refers to one Ignacio de Govera (sometimes Gobaro) on page
196. Although the spelling is off, this undoubtedly is the right Ygnacio. ”On April 8th, 1878, action was taken by Judge
Bristol to convene a grand jury and by the 13th it was organized and functioning.” There were fifteen members and
Ygnacio was one of the members. He was one of nine Hispanics and must have been thought of as a solid citizen in the
community of Lincoln. He must have been fluent in English as well as his native language, and intelligent at age seventy-five.
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In the 1880 census Ygnacio resided by himself in the town of Lincoln, next to his son, Placido, and his family. His
trade was listed as that of a laborer, and he declared that he could read and write. By then, the historic title in his
family name had been lost to the abbreviated surname of Guevara.
Ygnacio and Saturnino Baca were witnesses at the marriage of Patricio Miranda and Juana Miller Nov. 1, 1880 at
Rio Bonito. Baca was an influential person during the hectic times in Lincoln County and his life is well documented.
He was county sheriff at one time. And since he and Ygnacio had served in the Union Army at the same time they
probably had common ground for a friendship.
On March 1, 1884 in Precinct Number 1, which was then Lincoln, N.M., Ygnacio filed a property return. He declared
no property to be taxed, but he had to pay a poll tax of $1.00.
In the 1885 New Mexico Census Ygnacio lived in Precinct Twelve, which may have been the Bonito area, a few miles
from Lincoln. He lived with Estanislada and her family. His age was given as 82. He was listed as a farmer, even at his
late age. This was the last record of Ygnacio. The 1890 censuses were lost due to a fire. He lived quite a long life, at least
82 years, especially for that time period. We know that he passed away before August 1892, because when his son
Placido married, the church marriage records stated that his parents were deceased. Placido was his only child that is
Ygnacio was a resident of Lincoln County during the time frame when the county was in turmoil, particularly because of
the Lincoln County War. The people that are talked about in books are folks that Ygnacio knew as neighbors. He was a
pioneer. He left a legacy, and his many descendants should be proud that he pioneered the way for them.
An expression with folks involved in genealogy is: “leaving a paper trail.” And Ygnacio left an impressive paper trail. but
due to his longevity and having resided in two countries there are voids in his “paper trail.”
The first void is from the time he matured until he was documented in late 1833 at age 30, a period of at least 10 years.
Did he leave Mexico at an early age or did he leave shortly before he was documented? Information may surface. The
best source would be information such as a godparent or witness at a marriage, either in Mexico or New Mexico church
records. And it's possible that he could have been in another area and that there are records there.
Another gray area in Ygnacio’s life is from the time that he invested in the mine in late 1833 until he married Ana Maria
Torres in 1844. If Golden was his home base for those years and it sounds as if it was, he must have wandered, because
. . . he was a bachelor, and had been until he married Ana Maria at age 41. Two witnesses who testified at the pre-nuptial
investigation said that to their knowledge he had never married, nor had Ygnacio talked of being married. It must have
been logical for a bachelor in a place such as El Tuerto, especially during the winter months, need to get away.
Albuquerque was about 40 miles and Santa Fe a little further. And if he had a good relationship with the Abreu brothers,
he may have liked Santa Fe which probably had the beauty in the early 1800s as it does today.
Another option for Ygnacio was, on a southerly trip, and about half-way to Albuquerque, not to make the right turn to the
west but to continue southerly for another 50 miles, which would have put him in Manzano. It was an active area at that
time involved in farming and trading. Ygnacio must have been romancing Dolores Gonzales in the middle 1830s because
she produced a son for him in Manzano. He may have spent a good deal of time in the area prior to his 1844 marriage.
Perhaps there are some records to verify that.
The time of Ygnacio’s life, as a family man, between the censuses of 1850 and 1860 is undocumented. Did the family live
the majority of that time in Golden or in Manzano? Perhaps they relocated to an other area. The late 1860s and early
1870s are somewhat vague. The family wasn’t in the 1870 New Mexico census. Perhaps there is an explanation for that.
And again, perhaps there are records.
Ygnacio’s life is pretty well covered for his whereabouts the last dozen years of so of his life. It would be nice to have a
death date but in the time frame and location, with no filmed record of newspapers, that is if there was a newspaper in that
area, there probably won't be an answer. The Santa Ana Church began baptism records in 1869 but didn’t record deaths
until 1897. He probably was living with his wife’s niece and her family at the time of death and probably a simple funeral
service was performed on the Lalones’ property. But again, there may be a record—someplace.
We Want to Display Pictures of Family Members in the Project, So We Would Appreciate Your Help
When I’m at Salt Lake City in the LDS Library, usually from 9:00 'til
9:00, primarily I’m looking at microfilm. Sometimes, when the
microfilm is easy to read the time passes and it’s not too tiring, but
when the reading is difficult more breaks are required.The breaks
usually consist of going to a nearby restaurant for a snack or going to
the upper level of the large structure. There are five levels and the
upper level is the location of many books. On one of my breaks
about six years ago I was looking at the books concerning New
Mexico and I happened to notice a series of volumes by Fray
Angelico Chavez. The volumes were diligencia extractions from New
Mexico churches over a lengthy period of time. Diligencia means pre-
nuptial investigation and Spain was probably the first society to
recognize that inter-marrying was socially wrong, and couples were
investigated before a marriage was performed. Well, Ygnacio was
located in one of the eleven volumes, he married a lady by the name
of Ana Maria Torres in 1844. The original document, translated from
Spanish to condensed, typed English declared where Ygnacio lived
at the time, the names of his parents, and mainly what area of Mexico
he was from. What a blessing and what a stroke of good luck to find
the document. I was in business. It’s the most important information
found to date. Much has been written about Fray Chavez and his fine
accomplishments, and New Mexico has honored him with a life-size
bronze statue in downtown Santa Fe, remembering him and his deeds.
Ygnacio's ggg grandson, Raoul, poses
with the very accomplished Father
San Francisco Church, Golden, N.M., constructed in 1830, may
have played an important role in Ygnacio's life.
Ygnacio next appeared in the area of
what is now New Mexico. In December
1833. Ygnacio, almost 31 years of age,
and perhaps considered a pioneer for
that time period, along with two partners,
Dolores Jalomo and Marcelino Abreu,
registered a mine. The mine, named
Santo Niño, located on Sierra de Oro
(Gold Mountain) in the Ortíz Mountains,
which lie midway between Santa Fe and
Albuquerque, “was to be worked in the
name of the Méxican nation for silver,
gold, copper, or whatever God may have
been pleased to give them, and in due
time they may have been given the
customary possession.” The mine was
sold the following February for 300 silver
pesos. It's likely that Ygnacio may have
arrived in the general area a few years
Take an exciting trip on the world's longest aerial tramway,
which is 2.7 miles, and you'll be atop 10,378 foot Sandia Peak.
The dramatic view and beauty is outstanding with an 11,000
square-mile panoramic view of the Land of Enchantment. The
photo on the left, viewing to the west, shows a tram, with
perhaps 25 passengers or so. The upper part of the photo
shows part of northeastern Albuquerque. The photo on the
right, viewing to the east, shows the gold bearing Ortiz
Mountain range where Ygnacio lived and headed a family for a
number of years.
The next information about the location of Ygnacio is
in the census of 1860, residing in the town of
Manzano, Valencia County, N.M. His age was given
as 57, and he was credited with a title “Niño Ladrón’
‘ by the census taker. His occupation was that of a
farmer, he didn’t declare his net worth, and he was
born in México. Also in the household was Ana
Marie Torres, age 46; Estanislada, age 14, and
Maximo, age 4, and again the census didn’t declare
relationships in the households. In an adjacent
dwelling lived Placido, age 22, credited with the title,
and Maria, age 23. The kid on the block in the 1850
census, Placido, had come of age. There was a new
kid on the block, Maximo, who was the son of
Placido and Maria, but was with the grandparents at
the time of the census. Also in the census and living
adjacent to the Guevaras was the Carrillo family.
And living with them was Lorenza Salas, age 70,
Ana Maria’s mother and Estanislada’s grandmother.
The lady of the house, Nicanora Marquez, may have
been Lorenza’s granddaughter.
Our Lady of Sorrows Church in Manzano, consecrated in
1835, must have played a role in the life of the Guevara
family. The well-known priest, Baptiste Lamy’s nephew,
Antonio Lamy, was a resident priest at one time. He
baptized Ygnacio’s granddaughter, Ana, in 1875, and he
also baptized Kathryn’s grandmother, Maximiliana
Bilderais, the same year, when he traveled to the Rio
T h e G u e v a r a S t o r y