Maximiano was introduced as a four year old in his grandfather, Ygnacio Guevara’s household in the 1860 Valencia County, New Mexico
census. Also residing in the dwelling in Manzano was Ygnacio’s wife, Ana Maria Torres, and Ana Maria’s niece, Estanislada Padilla. His age was
given as four years old and unless a baptism is found for Maximiano, we’ll assume that he was born in 1856, and according to his obituary he was
born in Magdalena, N.M. He stated in the 1900 census that his month of his birth was August, and that was about the time of the year that the
1860 census was taken. Living adjacent to Maximiano’s grandfather was Placido Guevara and  Maria. They, no doubt, were Maximiano’s
parents, although they stated that they were married within the past year, according to the census information. Ygnacio and Placido were credited
with the title of Niño Ladrón
(1), which cemented their relationship. Maximiano also would have inherited the title but the United States officially
didn't recognize titles for its citizens.
------------
1--The historical name is “Niño Ladrón de Guevara.” After the end of the Mexican-American War most Spanish surnames were shortened to accommodate American
customs.  It was also the custom in Colonial Spanish America to pass along the mother’s “paternal” surname; however, this custom was also dropped. This custom,
nevertheless, survives to this day in all other Spanish-Italian-French speaking nations of the world.

Maximiano’s next introduction was that of godfather to his sister, Justa, born in July 1869 in the settlement of Missouri Plaza, Lincoln County,     
N.M. He was 13, and he must have been mature enough at that age to merit such an honor. Also, he was credited with the title of Niño Ladrón.
Justa apparently didn‘t survive, since she wasn’t in the 1870 census. Her baptism is listed on the first page of the Santa Rita Church
baptisms,
which began in July 1869. Father Boucard was the initial priest of the parish, and the church’s records have continued for more than one hundred
forty years. Marta Sandoval was Justa’s godmother, and it is not known at this time what connection she may have had with the Guevaras rather
than a friend of the family.

Maximiano was listed with his parents, Placido and Maria, in the 1870
census. The area probably was what is now the area of Picacho. The
family lived in Missouri Plaza the previous year and had re-located before the census was taken in September. He was the oldest of four children.
His siblings were Albino, Mercedes and Manuel. He obviously hadn’t had the opportunity for schooling because the census stated that he could
not read or write. As the oldest child, he probably was counted on to help with the family's work load, because at age fourteen he was listed as a
farm hand. Max spent his early years in Manzano, Missouri Plaza, Picacho, and the Lincoln area. By the time the Lincoln County War was raging
he was in his early 20s.
(2)
------------
2--Frederick Nolan’s book, The Lincoln County War documented approximately ninety killings that occurred between 1873-1881. And perhaps the undocumented
killings exceeded that number.






























Maurice Fulton wrote one of the early fine works about the Lincoln County War and he mentioned an episode about Maximiano being a jailer in
Lincoln in the fall of 1877 and that there was an escape. Frederick Nolan’s fine book, written a few years ago, also mentioned the episode. There
was plenty of conjecture and accusations about the escape of the four men, and as a result Maximiano lost his job as the jailer.

Nolan's book suggests that Max
(3) played a minor role in the Lincoln County War. Max eventually sided with the faction(4) that opposed the
establishment of L.G. Murphy and James Dolan.
(5) This fact suggests that he may have rubbed shoulders with William Bonney, alias Billy the Kid.
He was just a few years older than The Kid.
------------
3--The Guevara surname can be spelled different ways and several documents with his signature revealed that he preferred “Guebara” and he shortened his given name
to “Max.”
4--Mid-December 1878, when Billy the Kid had returned to Lincoln, Max’s home was a gathering place for the Home-again Regulators.
5--Few Hispanos during the Lincoln County War sided with “Murphy Men.”

In the booklet Frontier Parish by Billy Cummings we learned that Max was elected constable in November 1878 for Lincoln, but he may not have
fulfilled his duties due to the unrest and violence in that area and two months later, in January 1879, the Lincoln County Board of Commissioners
examined and gave approval for a
bond for Maximiano. The document didn’t specify what the bond was for but it may have involved his being
elected constable.

The 1900 U.S. census of Lincoln County, New Mexico stated that Max and Felicita Montoya had been married for 22 years which put the year of
their marriage in 1878. No marriage document has surfaced so far. She was the sister of Jose Montoya, well known in the Ancho-Jicarilla area.
Max and Felicita are pictured in a group photograph taken in front of the White Oaks Methodist Church.




































Max and Felicita didn’t appear in the 1880 United States census, at least not in New Mexico.  The Lincoln County War was still in progress and
Max had been a minor participant.

Maximiano was served a
subpoena by Deputy Sheriff Charles R. Brent to appear and testify in August 1882 before the justice of the peace,
Precinct 8, which was the community of White Oaks. This may be the first evidence of a member of the Guevara family associated with White
Oaks.

In March 1884 Maximiano filed a property return for tax purposes in White Oaks and Lincoln. He claimed three horses, 28 mules, a saloon,
music instruments, and he had notes to the tune of $100. The grand total was $879 and $300 was deducted for being the head of the household,
and resident of the county.

In February 1885 Martina Huff sold Max a house on a 50 foot lot by warranty deed in downtown Lincoln(
6) and she must have sold him an
adjacent 25 foot lot at about the same time. At one time, L. G. Murphy and Alex McSween had previously owned the property. Max retained the
50 foot property for 30 years and it was sold after his death.
--------
6--See map of Lincoln Town for location of Caravajal House, aka Huff House. The site was later one of the sites of the Five Day Battle (Tunstall McSween faction). A
Stroll Through Old Lincoln Town, by Walter R. Henn.






















































































































Precinct No 10 was the Ruidoso area, a distance away from where Max had been residing. As personal property he claimed 3 horses, 2 mules,
400 sheep, 8 goats, household and miscellaneous items for a total of $521. He was given a $200 deduction for being head of the household. Max’
s signature is on the document.

In June 1900 the Board of County Commissioners of Lincoln County approved a fee of $2.00 that Maximiano had earned when he was an
interpreter at a trial for one day the previous March. The trial was in the Justice of the Peace Court, White Oaks.

Max appeared in the 1900
census, taken in June, living in Prec. 8, White Oaks, N.M. with wife Felicita. He gave his age as 41, born Aug. 1859.
Felicita gave her age as 38, born May 1862. She had borne two children, neither survived. Max hauled wood for a living, and he declared that he
could read and write. Max and Felicita’s next door neighbors were brother Lorenzo and family, and father Placido and wife Librada.

Maximiano was an interpreter at a trial the day before Christmas, 1901 In the Justice Court, Precinct No. 8, which was White Oaks. He received
his one day fee of $2.00.

Max and Felicita appeared in the 1910
census, and they lived in Precinct No. 16, which was Carrizozo. He gave his occupation as a merchant
dealing in retail groceries. Max and Felicita gave their ages as 52 and 48, and again Felicita remarked that she had borne two children, but neither
survived. Abel Liverato, and family also lived in Carrizozo. His occupation was a butcher, working in retail sales. It’s very likely that he was
working with Max. Abel was the younger brother of Felicita and was raised by the Guebaras. He took the Guebara surname and raised his
children using that name.

In November 1915 Maximiano Niño Ladrón de Guebara passed away at Jicarilla, New Mexico after a short illness and was buried at White
Oaks.
(7)
--------
7--His obituary stated: “Highly respected citizen . . . many relatives and friends were at the graveside to pay the last sad tribute of respect . . . he was regarded as an
honorable, upright citizen whose efforts were ever exerted on the side of  friendship and justice.”

Felicita passed away October 21, 1930. She was at the home of her nephew, Albino Guebara, in Carrizozo. Her death certificate stated that she
was buried in Carrizozo.

News Items About Max
Carrizozo News, Jicarilla—
Max was obviously newsworthy to the Jicarilla correspondent for a few years when Max and Felicita were living in that area: He took a trip to
White Oaks, Apr. 4, 1913; his horses disappeared Apr. 25, 1913. The most important news item about Max was when he went to White Oaks
for funerals, May 2, 1913. The funerals were for his sister-in-law and step-mother. The notice didn't give the names of the deceased but the only
possibilites were that the sister-in-law was Maximiliana Guebara, wife of Max's brother, Lorenzo, and his step-mother was Librada Barela. They
died almost simultaneously from pneumonia and it was the only information on their death dates. A few years later, Maximiliana's headstone was
discovered and het death date matched the news item. (See the Lorenzo-Maximiliana story).

It was determined that Max's horses were stolen, May 9, 1913; Max was thrown from a horse, June 6, 1913; then his stolen horses were
recovered, June 13, 1913; he went to White Oaks Monday, July 18, 1913; he bought horse and buggy, Jan. 23, 1914. These last few items
almost seem comical, although not to Max at the time. He was in his late 50s age wise and probably figured that he was ready for the horse and
buggy mode of transportation. Max took a trip to Alamogordo, Jan. 30, 1914. The news item mentioned that his daughter-in-law, Mrs. Liberato,
was the postmistress during his absence. So, Max had another endeavor, as postmaster in Jicarilla. A well was being dug on his property east of
Jicarilla, Feb. 27, 1914; he was erecting a house on east side property, Apr. 3, 1914; Max sold his goats, May 15, 1914; ground for his crops,
June 12, 1914; he went to El Paso on business, June 26, 1914; Guerbarra (sic) Boys from White Oaks, and Max moving business to Ancho, July
24, 1914; Max had his building torn down and will have it put up again in Ancho, Aug. 28, 1914; he  picked up a load of melons, Oct. 1, 1914;
Old Citizen Passes Away, Nov. 26, 1915.
                                                                       
Maximiano Guebara, very likely was born in the year 1856 according several censuses and his obituary stated that he was born in Magdalena, N.
M. His parents were Placido and Maria Sanchez, and as a citizen of the United States his hereditary title of Niño Ladrón would not be
acknowleged. He was a lifelong resident of the area of what is now New Mexico. And If Max was indeed born in Magdalena, N.M. it presents
































Max had various endeavors during his lifetime, but probably was considered foremost a businessman. The first recorded activity of a business
venture is in early 1885 when he purchased two lots on the main street in Lincoln. The lots were previously owned by L.G. Murphy, and he
deeded the lots to A.A. McSween. That transaction happened in early 1877. If the parties were on a friendly basis then, that changed because the
men were opponents in the Lincoln County War.

Other documented business adventures included two times a saloon keeper, wood business, a merchant of retail groceries in Carrizozo, and he
was referred to as “Max Guebara, the merchant” when he was in business in the Jicarilla and Ancho areas during the late stage of his life. As a
side line, he was also a postmaster, because when he went on a trip, the post office was manned by his adopted son’s wife, an article mentioned.
And he probably had a store in Lincoln because it was related by a niece that her grandfather, Placido, used to work at a store in Lincoln owned
by a son. Max was the only child of age at the time. This was probably in the early 1880s.

MMaximiano and FelicitaM
The two photos are of Missouri Plaza. The overhead view photo on the left shows an outline of the corral and remnants
of houses near the road. The photo on the right shows a ground level view of the corral. Max was about thirteen years
of age when the Guevaras lived there and he was listed as a farm hand a year later in the 1870 census meaning that he
must have labored. He may have had a hand in building the corral and afterwards tending to the animals such as
leading them to grazing areas during the day and returning them to the corral for the night since marauding Indians
were a problem at that time. The  photo on the right shows how rocks were stacked and that would be sufficient to
corral cattle since they won't bridge stacked rocks.
This group photograph, circa 1898, hangs in the White Oaks Museum. It was taken in front of the Methodist Church at
White Oaks. On the right, next to the horse is Max Guebara and next to him, on his right, is his wife, Felicita.
Take an interesting tour of Lincoln Town and imagine that it's about the 1880s. Number 25 is the Torreon and Number 26 are
the properties that Max Guebara and Felicita owned at one time.
This picture shows the old Torreon in Lincoln and the adjacent lots with
a structure. Max made the purchase over 125 years ago and retained
possession of at least one lot for 30 years.
The front entrance to the structure, known as the Huff House, is a gift
shop and residence. The sign says  La Placita   Spinning  Weaving  
and there are two ladies spinning yarn on the front porch.
Again, Max and Felicita didn’t appear in the
next census which was the 1885 New
Mexico state census. Before census time his
parents, Placido and Maria, their three
sons; brother Felis and wife, and sister
Mercedes and husband had relocated to
White Oaks.

In December 1887, License No. 168 was
issued by probate clerk Jones Taliaferro
giving  Maximiano permission to have a
saloon at Reventon, Lincoln County. The
town was six miles northeast of White
Oaks. The 1900 census stated that about
180 people lived there.

In March 1895 Maximiano filed a property
return for tax purposes stating that he
resided in Precinct 10. The tenth precinct at
that time may have
been in the general area of
White Oaks (Precinct No. 8). In
1900
quite a mystery. At the time of Max's birth Magdalena was a primitive area and it wasn't
listed in the 1860 U.S. Census. During the 60s decade there was some mining activity,
and the area, mainly the nearby town of Kelly, later became a  substantial producer of
silver and zinc. There was a problem with Indians in the area from time to time. Max's
father, Placido, would have been 21 years of age at the time of Max's birth and if he was
in the area at the time with Maria, they would perhaps have been considered pioneers. If
Placido was in the area at the time, his dad, Ygnacio, was probably there also, although
he would have been in his late 50s.

Early documentation suggests that Max played a minor role in the Lincoln County War,  
opposing the establishment led by Murphy, and later Dolan. And that involvement could
have been the reason that he and Felicita weren't listed in the 1880 U. S. census for New
Mexico, if they left the area temporarily. And they weren't in the New Mexico state
census as well, although he filed a property return for Precinct 8, which was White Oaks,
in early 1884. Most of the family lived in the area and Max and Felicita may have been in
the census, but a couple of pages are unreadable.

The 1900 census stated that he and his wife, Felicita, had been married for 22 years. It
was also stated that she had borne two children, but neither survived. Felicita’s obituary
said that she was a Montoya, and her death certificate said that that she was born in
Lincoln and that her parents were from Mexico. Without a marriage to find out the
names of her parents it could be difficult to get more information about Felicita. Max also
said that he could read and write, which he couldn’t do as a fourteen year old. So he
must have made efforts to improve himself in that respect over the years. He obviously
was fluent, and had a good knowledge of English and Spanish, because on at least two
occasions he was called upon to interpret at trials.
This is an artist's rendition of Maximiano Guebara. A picture was extracted from the group picture (see above) and the artist,
Jimmy Tan, with high magnification, and the expertise of a very accomplished artist, came up with a likeness in the photo. I
had four of Tan's charcoal drawings done of my wife and I was very pleased with each one. I've watched Tan sketch many
times from photos and with someone posing. He's a very accomplished artist and I feel confident that he captured Max as he
looked at age 42.
CH  Photo has protection rights and not to be displayed without artist's consent.
Second to his business activities, Max was a rancher and may have done some farming according to
news items in the newspapers of the time, and information on his property returns. In one property
return he stated that he owned 400 sheep, plus a few other animals. Another time he claimed 28
mules. And of course he always had a few horses. A newspaper article stated that he lost his drove
of horses and that his horses may have strayed off searching for better grass. A later article stated
that the horses were stolen and that Max was on the trail of the horse thieves. A final article said that
Max had recovered his horses. The episode lasted for a month and one half.

Max and Felicita raised a n
ephew of  Felicita. His name was Abel Liverato, born in 1882. He, his
wife Esther, and their family, lived near Max and Felicita until after Max passed away. The family
eventually settled in Utah. Abel took the Guevara surname and raised his children using that name.

Max had obviously been enthused about life in his late years. He had homesteaded some land east
of Jicarilla and had built a house. He relocated his mercantile business---including the
building---from Jicarilla to Ancho and probably had plenty of self-satisfaction for what he had
accomplished in his life. In November 1915 he passed away after a short illness and was buried at
White Oaks, probably near his mother and father.
Abel Liverato and wife Esther
Summary
Hope you enjoyed the story